Vitamin DEn Español (Spanish Version)
Vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin. Fat-soluble vitamins are stored in the body's liver and fatty tissues. Vitamin D acts as both a vitamin and a hormone.
Vitamin D is found in some foods, but the main sources are vitamin D-fortified milk and sunlight. The ultraviolet rays of the sun react with cholesterol present on the skin and create previtamin D3. This compound goes through a series of reactions in the kidneys and the liver, and the final product is vitamin D.
Vitamin D's functions:
- Plays a crucial role in the growth and maintenance of strong, healthy bones
- Maintains normal blood levels of calcium and phosphorus
In children with low vitamin D levels, the supplement can improve bone mineral density. While the evidence does not give a clear answer, it has also been suggested that vitamin D supplementation may reduce the risk of
in children, and
high blood pressure
and some forms of cancer.
Vitamin D has also been found to improve pain symptoms in patients with low vitamin D levels.
Here are the guidelines for vitamin D intake:
Age GroupRecommended Dietary Allowance or Adequate Intake (IU/Day)0-12 months4001-70 years60071+ years800Pregnant or nursing women600
IU: international units
The American Academy of Pediatrics recommends supplementation for all children who do not receive at least 400 IU of vitamin D daily. Breastfed babies may require a supplement within the first few days of life. Bottle-fed babies who do not consume enough vitamin-D fortified formula may also need the supplement, as well as any child who does not get plenty of vitamin D in their diet.
As seen above, requirements for pregnant women are the same as for healthy adults, though some believe that pregnant mothers should take more vitamin D than recommended. Furthermore, some experts believe that people at highest risk for vitamin D deficiency, such as older adults or those with limited sun exposure during the winter months, should take 1,000 IU or more daily. However, since the risk of vitamin D toxicity increases with higher doses, such recommendations ought to be discussed individually with a physician.
—in children, a disease in which the bones become soft and weak
—in adults, a disease in which the bones become soft and weak
- Muscle weakness
More mild vitamin D deficiency is thought to be relatively common, especially in higher latitudes, and may lead to increased risk of osteoporosis.
Since vitamin D is stored in the body and not excreted in the urine like most water-soluble vitamins, it is possible for it to accumulate and reach toxic levels. Here are safe upper level intakes for vitamin D:
Age GroupUpper Level Intake (IU/Day)0-6 months1,0007-12 months1,5001-3 years2,5004-8 years3,0009 years and older4,000Pregnant or nursing women4,000
Symptoms of toxicity:
- Poor appetite
- Weight loss
- High blood pressure
Raised levels of calcium in the blood, which can cause:
- Heart rhythm abnormalities
- Deposits of calcium in soft tissues, like the kidney, heart, and lungs
It is unlikely for sunlight and diet to cause vitamin D toxicity.
If you have problems with any symptoms related to vitamin D toxicity, take less vitamin D supplements.
Fortified foods provide the most vitamin D. Examples of foods that may be fortified with vitamin D are:
- Orange juice
- Soy beverages
There are not many foods that are natural sources of vitamin D. Of those foods that have vitamin D naturally are (most to least):
- Fatty fish, such as salmon, tuna, and mackerel
- Beef liver
- Egg yolks
A relatively small amount of sun exposure can provide adequate vitamin D. In a study of naval personnel in submarines, six days of sun exposure proved capable of supplying enough vitamin D for 49 sunless days. However, the actual synthesis of vitamin D through sunlight is affected by season, latitude, time of day, cloud cover, smog, use of sunblock, and skin pigmentation.
The following populations may be at risk for vitamin D deficiency and may require a supplement:
- Breastfeed babies—Human milk does not have enough vitamin D. Breastfed babies should receive a 400 IU vitamin supplement each day to make up for this.
- Older adults—Studies suggest that adults over age 65 have less ability to synthesize vitamin D through sunlight exposure than adults aged 20-30. They are also likely to spend less time out in the sun.
Elderly women with vitamin D deficiency may benefit from taking D3 supplements. Talk to your doctor, though, before taking these.
- Locales with limited sun exposure—People who live above latitudes of approximately 40°N and below latitudes of approximately 40°S are at risk for deficiency during most of the winter months.
- People with dark skin—Those with darker skin are less able to make vitamin D from the sun.
People who are
—Body fat can bind to some vitamin D preventing it from getting into the blood where it can be used by the body.
People with a reduced ability to absorb dietary fat—Because vitamin D is a fat-soluble vitamin, fat is required for its absorption from foods. Some conditions that can cause fat malabsorption include
, pancreatic enzyme deficiency, and liver disease.
Here are tips to help increase your intake of vitamin D:
- If you take a vitamin supplement, make sure it contains vitamin D.
- Drink vitamin D-fortified milk.
Get sun exposure, but be careful to watch for sunburn. Sunlight is a major cause of
Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics
Office of Dietary Supplements
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3/6/2013 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
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Last Reviewed October 2013