ThymectomyEn Español (Spanish Version)
A thymectomy is surgery to remove the thymus gland. This gland is located in the upper portion of the chest, behind the breastbone.
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The thymus gland helps immune cell growth. It is usually active when you are an infant, but its function reduces as you get older. The thymus acts abnormally when a person has
. A thymectomy is used to treat
A thymectomy may also be done if the thymus has a tumor, which is called thymoma. These types of tumors are associated with myasthenia gravis.
Complications are rare, but no procedure is completely free of risk. If you are planning to have a thymectomy, your doctor will review a list of possible complications, which may include:
- Damage to other organs
- Nerve injury
- Respiratory failure
Factors that may increase the risk of complications include:
Your doctor will likely do the following:
- Blood tests
- Urine tests
- Muscle strength tests
- Breathing tests
- Follow a special diet, which may include withholding foods and fluids before surgery.
- Take prescribed medicines.
Talk to your doctor about your medicines. You may be asked to stop taking some medicines up to one week before the procedure, like:
or other anti-inflammatory drugs
- Blood thinners
- Arrange to have someone drive you to and from the procedure. Ask for help at home after your procedure.
anesthesia will be given. You will be asleep.
There are three common methods:
- Trans-sternal approach—An incision will be made in the skin over your breastbone. The breastbone will be pulled apart. The thymus gland will then be exposed and removed. The incision will be closed with stitches or staples.
- Transcervical approach—A small incision is made across the lower part of the neck, just above the breastbone. The thymus gland will be removed. The incision will be closed with stitches or staples.
Video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) or
robot-assisted thoracic procedures
—This is a less invasive option. Several tiny incisions are made in the area. A tiny camera will be inserted through one of the incisions. The camera will send images to a monitor in the room. Robotic arms may be used to do the surgery. Special tools will be passed through the remaining incisions to remove the thymus. After the thymus is removed, the incisions will be closed with stitches.
You will be taken to a recovery room. There, you will be monitored for any complications.
About 1-3 hours
Anesthesia will block the pain during the surgery. You may feel some pain as the anesthesia wears off. Your doctor will give you medicine to help manage the pain.
The usual length of stay is 1-3 days. Your doctor may choose to keep you longer if complications arise.
You will be given fluids and medicine through an IV. You will be instructed to practice deep breathing, coughing, and frequent turning. Nurses will measure your muscle strength and breathing ability to determine the effectiveness of the surgery.
The recovery time varies from patient to patient, depending on the surgical approach. It may take as little as 1-2 weeks or as long as three months before you can return to work or school. Ask your doctor about when it is safe to shower, bathe, or soak in water. Be sure to follow your doctor’s instructions.
If the surgery was done for myasthenia gravis:
- Improvement in muscle strength may take several months to a few years.
- It is important to work with a neurologist during the recovery period to regulate medicines.
After you leave the hospital, contact your doctor if any of the following occurs:
- Signs of infection, including fever and chills
- Redness, swelling, increasing pain, excessive bleeding, or any discharge from the incision site
- Pain that you cannot control with the medicines you have been given
- Cough, difficulty breathing, or chest pain
- Pain, burning, urgency, or frequency of urination, or persistent bleeding in the urine
- Persistent nausea and/or vomiting
- Pain and/or swelling in your feet, calves, or legs
- Any other worrisome symptoms
In case of an emergency, call for medical help right away.
Myasthenia Gravis Foundation of America, Inc.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Muscular Dystrophy Canada
General Information about Thymoma and Thymic Cancers. National Cancer Institute. Available at:
Updated March 22, 2013. Accessed May 22, 2013.
Myasthenia gravis fact sheet. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke website. Available at:
. Updated December 4, 2012. Accessed May 22, 2013.
Shrager JB. Extended transcervical thymectomy: the ultimate minimally invasive approach.
Ann Thorac Surg.
Surgical treatment options for myasthenia gravis. University of Maryland Medical Center website. Available at:
. Updated August 7, 2008. Accessed May 22, 2013.
6/3/2011 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance
: Mills E, Eyawo O, Lockhart I, Kelly S, Wu P, Ebbert JO. Smoking cessation reduces postoperative complications: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
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Last Reviewed May 2013